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How The Toilet Changed 9 months ago

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This video was supported by Bill and Melinda Gates. You can check out the Gates Annual Letter here:
↓ More info and sources below ↓

We’re proud to collaborate with Bill and Melinda Gates for this week’s video! It may sometimes seem like things are getting worse, but there’s lots of reasons to be optimistic about the future. More people have access to toilets and sanitation than ever before. Thanks to public health improvements like this, since 1990, 122 million children’s lives have been saved. Diseases like polio are nearing eradication. Women have more access to health care and education than ever before.

But our work is not done. How can YOU help make the future better for the world’s poorest?

Bill and Melinda Gates
Francisco de los Reyes (watch his TED talk:


George, Rose. “The Big Necessity: The unmentionable world of human waste and why it matters.” 2008.

Perdew, Laura. “How the Toilet Changed History” 2016.

Ferriman, A. (2007). BMJ readers choose the “sanitary revolution” as greatest medical advance since 1840. BMJ : British Medical Journal, 334(7585), 111.

CDC Global WASH statistics:

WHO Toilet/Sanitation Fact Sheet:

WaterAid “We Can’t Wait”:

Unilever “Toilets for Health”


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It’s Okay To Be Smart is hosted by Joe Hanson, Ph.D.
Director: Joe Nicolosi
Writer: Joe Hanson
Editor/animator: Andrew Orsak
Producer: Stephanie Noone and Amanda Fox

Produced by PBS Digital Studios
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